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      Balancing China’s Energy Security and Its Transition to Carbon Neutrality
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Balancing China’s Energy Security and Its Transition to Carbon Neutrality

      Dongmei Chen, Mari Luomi

      At the United Nations (UN) General Assembly’s seventy-fifth session held on September 20, 2020, Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged that China would reach peak carbon emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. This is seen as a significant…

      Dongmei Chen Chen, Dongmei
      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      10th April 2022
      Role of Energy Efficiency in Designing Carbon-neutral Residential Communities: Case Study of Saudi Arabia
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Role of Energy Efficiency in Designing Carbon-neutral Residential Communities: Case Study of Saudi Arabia

      Moncef Krarti, Mohammad Aldubyan

      This study focuses on the impact of improving the energy efficiency of housing units on the design of carbon-neutral grid-connected residential communities in Saudi Arabia. Particularly, it examines the efficacy of both photovoltaic systems and wind turbines as on-site renewable…

      Moncef Krarti Krarti, Moncef
      Mohammad Aldubyan Aldubyan, Mohammad
      3rd April 2022
      The Role of Building Energy Efficiency in Shaping the Energy Transition in Saudi Arabia: Key challenges and initiatives
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      The Role of Building Energy Efficiency in Shaping the Energy Transition in Saudi Arabia: Key challenges and initiatives

      Fateh Belaïd, Mohammad Aldubyan

      This commentary discusses a crucial topic that has emerged in the policy and economic literature in recent years: the potential role of energy efficiency in the current energy transition. It provides a straightforward analysis of the prominent role that residential…

      Fateh Belaïd Belaïd, Fateh
      Mohammad Aldubyan Aldubyan, Mohammad
      8th February 2022
      What Drove Saudi Arabia’s 2020 Fall in CO2 Emissions?
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      What Drove Saudi Arabia’s 2020 Fall in CO2 Emissions?

      Thamir Al Shehri, Jan Frederik Braun, Anwar Gasim, Mari Luomi

      In June 2021, the energy data provider Enerdata released its initial estimates for Saudi Arabia’s 2020 carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The data indicate that the Kingdom’s CO2 emissions from fuel combustion decreased by 3.3%, from 508.3 million tonnes of CO2…

      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      Jan Frederik Braun Braun, Jan Frederik
      Anwar Gasim Gasim, Anwar
      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      29th December 2021
      Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies for Reducing Peak Demand
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies for Reducing Peak Demand

      Moncef Krarti, Mohammad Aldubyan

      This paper describes an optimization-based approach to evaluate measures providing peak electricity demand reduction cost benefits for Saudi residential buildings. These measures can be categorized as energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) measures. Specifically, this paper models the existing…

      Moncef Krarti Krarti, Moncef
      Mohammad Aldubyan Aldubyan, Mohammad
      22nd December 2021
      Building Back Better in Saudi Arabia With Energy Efficiency
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Building Back Better in Saudi Arabia With Energy Efficiency

      Nicholas Howarth, Moncef Krarti, Thamir Al Shehri, Eric Williams, Mohammad Aldubyan, Jan Frederik Braun, Elizabeth Carey

      The first priority for governments in managing the COVID-19 crisis is the health of their citizens. However, the implementation of restrictions on activity necessary for limiting the spread of the disease has caused the greatest global recession since the Great…

      Nicholas Howarth Howarth, Nicholas
      Moncef Krarti Krarti, Moncef
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      Eric Williams Williams, Eric
      Mohammad Aldubyan Aldubyan, Mohammad
      Jan Frederik Braun Braun, Jan Frederik
      Elizabeth Carey Carey, Elizabeth
      5th October 2021
      Measuring to Manage: The Case for Improving CO2 Monitoring and Reporting in Saudi Arabia
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Measuring to Manage: The Case for Improving CO2 Monitoring and Reporting in Saudi Arabia

      Mari Luomi, Thamir Al Shehri, Nicholas Howarth

      To support the transition to a circular carbon economy, there is an urgent need to develop robust domestic systems of carbon dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) monitoring and reporting in the Kingdom. Such systems provide the essential evidence…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      Nicholas Howarth Howarth, Nicholas
      13th July 2021
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index – Methodological Approach and Conceptual Framework
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index – Methodological Approach and Conceptual Framework

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Al Shehri, Nicholas Howarth

      The circular carbon economy (CCE) approach, developed during Saudi Arabia’s G20 Presidency and endorsed by G20 leaders and energy ministers, can be used as a framework for holistic assessments of all available energy and emission management technologies within the confines…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      Nicholas Howarth Howarth, Nicholas
      28th June 2021
      Economic Diversification Under Saudi Vision 2030
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Economic Diversification Under Saudi Vision 2030

      David Havrlant, Abdulelah Darandary

      The last decade has brought a row of substantial changes that have profound implications for the hydrocarbon resource-rich economies. The general answer to a changing environment is: Adapt! From the macroeconomic perspective, this means diversifying the economy to broaden the…

      David Havrlant Havrlant, David
      Abdulelah Darandary Darandary, Abdulelah
      14th April 2021
      The RCEP and its Potential Impact on Saudi Regional Exports
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      The RCEP and its Potential Impact on Saudi Regional Exports

      Philipp Galkin, Dongmei Chen

      On November 15, 2020, 10 Southeast Asian economies, joined by Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand and South Korea, formed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) – the world’s largest trading bloc, representing about a third of the global economy (BBC…

      Philipp Galkin Galkin, Philipp
      Dongmei Chen Chen, Dongmei
      30th March 2021
      The Future of the Petrochemicals Industry and Sino-Saudi Cooperation
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      The Future of the Petrochemicals Industry and Sino-Saudi Cooperation

      The Covid-19 pandemic and the responses to it have had a pronounced impact on the global economy. Major consuming sectors for petrochemicals, including cars and appliances, construction and textiles, have suffered a slump in demand. The production outputs of petrochemicals…

      14th February 2021
      Real Gross Domestic Income for Saudi Arabia: A Measure of National Income
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Real Gross Domestic Income for Saudi Arabia: A Measure of National Income

      Anwar Gasim, Walid Matar

      “A country’s national income is defined as the total market value of its output. The most used measure for national income is gross domestic product (GDP). One way to estimate GDP for a country is to sum its government consumption,…

      Anwar Gasim Gasim, Anwar
      Walid Matar Matar, Walid
      27th December 2020
      What Happened to Residential Electricity Consumption in Saudi Arabia Between 2015 and 2018?
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      What Happened to Residential Electricity Consumption in Saudi Arabia Between 2015 and 2018?

      Mohammad Aldubyan, Anwar Gasim

      Between 2007 and 2018, residential electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia increased by 45%, from around 89 terawatthours (TWh) to 130 TWh (SAMA 2019). Population and gross domestic product (GDP) are two key factors that influence residential electricity consumption.

      Mohammad Aldubyan Aldubyan, Mohammad
      Anwar Gasim Gasim, Anwar
      26th August 2020
      The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia
      Energy and Economic Vulnerability Productivity and Economic Diversification

      The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia

      Fakhri Hasanov, Nader AlKathiri, Saad Alshahrani, Ryan Alyamani

      A clear objective of Saudi Vision 2030, the strategic roadmap for the future of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is to put the non-oil sector at the heart of the country’s economic development. The vision realization programs (VRPs), such as…

      Fakhri Hasanov Hasanov, Fakhri
      Nader AlKathiri AlKathiri, Nader
      Saad Alshahrani Alshahrani, Saad
      Ryan Alyamani Alyamani, Ryan
      19th July 2020
      Industrial Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Industrial Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia

      Anwar Gasim

      In 2017, Saudi Arabia’s total final energy consumption was 140.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). Total final energy consumption is defined as energy used by final consumers (or end users). It includes electricity use in residential buildings, gasoline use…

      Anwar Gasim Gasim, Anwar
      31st May 2020
      Saudi Vision 2030 Dynamic Input-Output Table: Combining Macroeconomic Forecasts With the RAS Method
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Saudi Vision 2030 Dynamic Input-Output Table: Combining Macroeconomic Forecasts With the RAS Method

      David Havrlant, Mehmet Ali Soytas

      When an economy is in the midst of a transformation and diversification process, it is hard to assume that its sectoral composition and inter-industry transactions will remain unchanged. This is especially the case since substantial adjustments to a country’s economic…

      David Havrlant Havrlant, David
      Mehmet Ali Soytas Soytas, Mehmet Ali
      12th April 2020
      The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia
      Energy and Economic Vulnerability Productivity and Economic Diversification

      The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia

      Fakhri Hasanov, Nader AlKathiri, Saad Alshahrani, Ryan Alyamani

      Saudi Vision 2030 (SV2030), the strategic roadmap for the future of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, aims to decouple the country’s economy from its reliance on oil revenues through implementing several economic and social initiatives. The key economic goals of…

      Fakhri Hasanov Hasanov, Fakhri
      Nader AlKathiri AlKathiri, Nader
      Saad Alshahrani Alshahrani, Saad
      Ryan Alyamani Alyamani, Ryan
      16th January 2020
      Renewable Energy and Employment: The Experience of Egypt, Jordan and Morocco
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Renewable Energy and Employment: The Experience of Egypt, Jordan and Morocco

      Sylvain Côté

      While the renewable energy sector needs more workers per megawatt of energy generated than fossil fuel-based energy sectors, a sound and dynamic labor market is necessary for local populations to enjoy the benefits of employment. A well-functioning market can help…

      Sylvain Côté Côté, Sylvain
      3rd December 2019