The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): Progress Amid Controversies
Overview of the BRI
President Xi Jinping announced the BRI in 2013 during his official visits to Kazakhstan and Indonesia. The vision for a Silk Road Economic Belt connecting Central Asia and Europe was outlined in his speech in Kazakhstan, and the roadmap for a Maritime Silk Road linking the two continents was described in his speech in Indonesia (SCIO 2016). In the eight years since its inauguration, the initiative has evolved, simultaneously shaping the global political economy.