• Primary Program Climate and Sustainability
  • Research Interests Energy Efficiency in Buildings; Energy Demand; Energy Modeling

Biography

Mohammad is a research lead in KAPSARC’s Climate & Sustainability program. His research focuses on energy efficiency and energy demand in buildings. He is currently leading the Residential Energy Model (REEM), which simulates residential energy demand and estimates the impact of energy efficiency programs on Saudi Arabia’s housing sector. He also leads the long-term KAPSARC Oil Market Outlook (KOMO) in buildings and agriculture sectors.

Mohammad holds an M.Sc. in Renewable and Clean Energy from the University of Dayton, Ohio and an M.Sc. in Economics from Purdue University, West Lafayette.

Publications

See all Mohammad’s publications
  • Discussion papers
  • Methodology papers
  • Data Insights
  • Instant Insights
  • Commentaries
  • KAPSARC journal articles
Impact of Stay-home Orders on the Electricity Demand of Residential Buildings: Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Impact of Stay-home Orders on the Electricity Demand of Residential Buildings: Case Study of Saudi Arabia

The analysis presented in this paper evaluates the impact of the COVID-19 stay-home order (or lockdown) on electricity consumption among Saudi residential building stock. Our analysis is based on an assessment of monitored data obtained for a sample of housing units as well as the results from a residential energy model (REEM). Specifically, we estimate the impact of the stay-home order imposed due to COVID-19 in most Saudi regions between March 15 and June 15, 2020, on residential electricity consumption.

14th April 2022
Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies for Reducing Peak Demand

Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies for Reducing Peak Demand

This paper describes an optimization-based approach to evaluate measures providing peak electricity demand reduction cost benefits for Saudi residential buildings. These measures can be categorized as energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) measures. Specifically, this paper models the existing Saudi building stock using 56 housing prototypes based on types, vintages and locations.

22nd December 2021
Modeling Long-Term Oil Demand in the Agricultural Sector

Modeling Long-Term Oil Demand in the Agricultural Sector

The agricultural sector and global food security are facing an increasing number of risks due to climate change, the increasing population size, rising energy and agricultural demands, competing demands for land for biofuel production, and the degradation of soil quality. Between 2001 and 2018, the annual consumption of food and agricultural products increased rapidly by approximately 48%, and there was twofold population growth (WEF 2021). This increase in agricultural demand has also stimulated the demand for energy products, as the agricultural sector relies heavily on specific fuels for heating, machinery, and other activities. Given the consistent increasing trend of the global population, the world will be faced with the need to feed approximately 10 billion people by 2050, or approximately 50% more food than in 2010.

17th January 2024
Residential Energy Model for Evaluating Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency Programs in Saudi Residential Buildings

Residential Energy Model for Evaluating Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency Programs in Saudi Residential Buildings

This paper describes the development of the Residential Energy Model (REEM) for Saudi Arabia using an engineering bottom-up approach. The model can assess energy demand for the current residential building stock and the impact of energy efficiency and demand-side management programs. It accounts for the makeup and features of the Kingdom’s existing housing stock using 54 prototypes of residential buildings defined by three building types, three vintages, and six locations representing different climatic zones.

21st February 2021
The Evolution of Gasoline Demand and Prices in Saudi Arabia

The Evolution of Gasoline Demand and Prices in Saudi Arabia

Gasoline is the primary fuel for the passenger car fleet in Saudi Arabia. The demand for passenger cars, and hence gasoline, is primarily driven by the size, geography and economic growth of the country, its domestic fuel prices, and the tendency for consumers to use private transportation, among other factors.

3rd February 2021
Per Capita Regional Electricity Consumption in the Saudi Housing Sector

Per Capita Regional Electricity Consumption in the Saudi Housing Sector

Aggregate residential electricity consumption data for Saudi Arabia conceals regional disparities. Although electricity prices are unified across the country, electricity consumption patterns can be driven by regional factors such as wealth, population size, and weather conditions, among others.

7th September 2020
Why Did Domestic Gasoline Prices Fall in Saudi Arabia?

Why Did Domestic Gasoline Prices Fall in Saudi Arabia?

What is behind the dramatic fall in gasoline prices? On May 11, 2020, Saudi Arabia slashed its domestic gasoline prices. The price of 91-octane gasoline fell from 1.31 to 0.67 Saudi Arabian riyals (SAR) per liter, while the price of 95-octane gasoline fell from 1.47 to 0.82 SAR per liter. As a result of these price reductions, domestic gasoline prices today are very close to those that prevailed before the gasoline price reform in 2018. As a result, some mistakenly believe that Saudi Arabia has introduced gasoline subsidies.

7th June 2020
Gasoline Price Reform in Saudi Arabia

Gasoline Price Reform in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has been adjusting gasoline prices on a quarterly basis since the start of 2019, with the most recent adjustment occurring on July 14, 2019. These adjustments depend on changes in international oil prices, and are smaller than the major changes in gasoline prices that occurred because of the energy price reforms of 2016 and 2018.

1st September 2019
The Rebound Effect in Residential Energy Demand: The Case of Saudi Arabia

The Rebound Effect in Residential Energy Demand: The Case of Saudi Arabia

A Bird’s-Eye View of the Rebound Effect Although the rebound effect phenomenon has sparked heightened policy and academic debate in recent years, the topic is not new. The concept of rebound – and its extreme form, “backfire”, where energy efficiency leads to higher energy consumption – emerged in the work of 19th-century economist Stanley Jevons (Jevons, 1865). Jevons, in his book The Coal Question (1865), postulated that energy consumption would increase with increasing industrial efficiency as individuals produce and consume more goods.  

8th May 2023
The Role of Building Energy Efficiency in Shaping the Energy Transition in Saudi Arabia: Key challenges and initiatives

The Role of Building Energy Efficiency in Shaping the Energy Transition in Saudi Arabia: Key challenges and initiatives

This commentary discusses a crucial topic that has emerged in the policy and economic literature in recent years: the potential role of energy efficiency in the current energy transition. It provides a straightforward analysis of the prominent role that residential energy efficiency may play in shaping the energy transition and the pathway to sustainability. The primary focus is the energy efficiency initiatives in Saudi Arabia, as an example of a country that is very concerned by the transformation of the energy landscape.

8th February 2022
Building Back Better in Saudi Arabia With Energy Efficiency

Building Back Better in Saudi Arabia With Energy Efficiency

The first priority for governments in managing the COVID-19 crisis is the health of their citizens. However, the implementation of restrictions on activity necessary for limiting the spread of the disease has caused the greatest global recession since the Great Depression. Many governments are considering how to support citizens’ livelihoods and stimulate economies hit hard by the disease.

5th October 2021
The Impact of High Temperatures on Battery Performance in Solar-PV Systems With Storage

The Impact of High Temperatures on Battery Performance in Solar-PV Systems With Storage

The World Bank estimates that nearly 1 billion people globally have no grid electricity access. Diesel generators are the default source of energy for locations lacking access to the grid. The falling costs of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and battery storage systems will enable fully renewable, reliable, and economic off-grid generation.

17th December 2019

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