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      The Gulf Cooperation Council and the Circular Carbon Economy: Progress and Potential
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Gulf Cooperation Council and the Circular Carbon Economy: Progress and Potential

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Alshehri

      Over the past year, all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have updated their medium-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets by submitting revised nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Alshehri Alshehri, Thamir
      14th June 2022
      Plastics in the Circular Carbon Economy
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Plastics in the Circular Carbon Economy

      Plastics are a critical category in the chemicals value chain and have helped shape the modern economy. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the importance of plastics in people’s lives. Throughout the international community, the demand for plastic has surged during…

      28th March 2022
      Potential implications of the EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Potential implications of the EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism

      Bertrand Rioux, Dongmei Chen

      From 2023 onward, the European Union’s (EU’s) Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) will require importers to declare the embedded carbon emissions of electricity, iron, steel, aluminum, cement and fertilizers. The CBAM will ultimately transition into a carbon import tax, with…

      Bertrand Rioux Rioux, Bertrand
      Dongmei Chen Chen, Dongmei
      22nd March 2022
      COP 26 Outcomes and Opportunities for Saudi Arabia and Other Arab Countries
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      COP 26 Outcomes and Opportunities for Saudi Arabia and Other Arab Countries

      Mari Luomi

      The 2021 Glasgow Climate Change Conference, also known as COP 26, took place at a difficult juncture. Countries are still struggling with the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences. The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere continue to…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      13th February 2022
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Results
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Results

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Alshehri

      There is an urgent need to align global carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions with climate-safe trajectories. A broad range of technologies and approaches are needed to achieve this cost-effectively and equitably. The circular carbon economy (CCE) concept provides…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Alshehri Alshehri, Thamir
      29th December 2021
      The Implications of Soaring Gas and Coal Prices on Europe’s Energy Poverty Trap
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Implications of Soaring Gas and Coal Prices on Europe’s Energy Poverty Trap

      Fateh Belaïd

      With the recovery of the world economy following the easing of restrictions designed to contain COVID-19, energy demand has surged even as natural gas stocks were dangerously low. This triggered one of the first significant energy shocks of the green…

      Fateh Belaïd Belaïd, Fateh
      15th December 2021
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Methodology
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Methodology

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Alshehri

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index (CCE Index) aims to measure countries’ progress in and potential for achieving circular carbon economies (CCEs). The CCE Index is based on two sub-indices: one for measuring countries’ current performance in the various dimensions of…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Alshehri Alshehri, Thamir
      2nd November 2021
      Countries’ Progress and Enablers for Circular Carbon Economies
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Countries’ Progress and Enablers for Circular Carbon Economies

      The circular carbon economy (CCE) is a new concept, developed in detail by Saudi scholars and stakeholders since 2019 and promoted via Saudi Arabia’s Group of Twenty (G20) presidency in 2020. The CCE is conceptualized as an economy in which…

      5th October 2021
      Supply-side Climate Policy for Crude Oil Producers
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Supply-side Climate Policy for Crude Oil Producers

      Paul Zakkour, Wolfgang Heidug

      This paper considers the potential for supply-side climate policy to increase climate action, with a focus on crude oil producers and exporting countries. To date, supply-side policies have not been widely used in efforts to tackle climate change, and the…

      Paul Zakkour Zakkour, Paul
      Wolfgang Heidug Heidug, Wolfgang
      21st September 2020
      Green Growth Pathways for Saudi Arabia
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Green Growth Pathways for Saudi Arabia

      Green growth emphasizes that positive environmental outcomes can be consistent with economic prosperity and that greater social wellbeing can be achieved through ‘less use, more value’ policies.

      6th April 2020
      Is Saudi Arabia Getting Warmer?
      Electricity Sector Transitions Climate Change Policies and Governance Models, Data and Tools

      Is Saudi Arabia Getting Warmer?

      Nawaz Peerbocus, Hatem Al Atawi, Turki Alaqeel, Abdulrahman AlJulaifi

      According to NASA, the world is getting warmer. Warmer weather increases the demand for cooling, which subsequently increases the demand for electricity. Is Saudi Arabia getting warmer? And how might this impact the demand for electricity in the Kingdom? To…

      Nawaz Peerbocus Peerbocus, Nawaz
      Hatem Al Atawi Al Atawi, Hatem
      Turki Alaqeel Alaqeel, Turki
      Abdulrahman AlJulaifi AlJulaifi, Abdulrahman
      6th April 2020
      The Relentless Politics of Climate Change: The Paris Agreement
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Relentless Politics of Climate Change: The Paris Agreement

      Saleh Al Muhanna, AlJawhara Al Quayid, Nourah Al Hosain

      The Paris Agreement entered into force in November 2016 and, to date, 187 parties have ratified it (UFCCC). The Agreement’s goal is to limit the increase in global temperature to 2 degrees Celsius (°C) above] pre-industrial levels. The Agreement established…

      Saleh Al Muhanna Al Muhanna, Saleh
      AlJawhara Al Quayid Al Quayid, AlJawhara
      Nourah Al Hosain Al Hosain, Nourah
      19th March 2020
      Finding a Viable Path to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Finding a Viable Path to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

      Keigo Akimoto, Jun Arima, Mustafa Babiker, Mark Caine, David Hobbs, Eija-Riitta Korhola, Adam Sieminski, Nico Stehr, Hiroyuki Tezuka, Masakazu Toyoda, Eric Williams

      A viable, least-cost pathway to a low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions future must lie within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Paris Agreement. The rulebook for the Agreement was in many ways rewritten at the 2018 United…

      Keigo Akimoto Keigo Akimoto
      Jun Arima Jun Arima
      Mustafa Babiker Babiker, Mustafa
      Mark Caine Mark Caine
      David Hobbs Hobbs, David
      Eija-Riitta Korhola Eija-Riitta Korhola
      Adam Sieminski Adam Sieminski
      Nico Stehr Nico Stehr
      Hiroyuki Tezuka Hiroyuki Tezuka
      Masakazu Toyoda Masakazu Toyoda
      Eric Williams Williams, Eric
      29th August 2019
      The Political Feasibility of Enhancing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets in the European Union’s Mid-Century Strategy
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Political Feasibility of Enhancing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets in the European Union’s Mid-Century Strategy

      AlJawhara Al Quayid, Saleh Al Muhanna, Paul Mollet

      Article 4.19 of the 2015 Paris Agreement calls on signatories to formulate and communicate “long-term low greenhouse gas development strategies,” widely known as the mid-century strategy (MCS). Any enhancement of the European Union’s (EU’s) targets in its MCS depends on…

      AlJawhara Al Quayid Al Quayid, AlJawhara
      Saleh Al Muhanna Al Muhanna, Saleh
      Paul Mollet Mollet, Paul
      22nd August 2019
      Paris Agreement CCS Policy and Mechanisms
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Paris Agreement CCS Policy and Mechanisms

      Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of a limited number of ways to reach the Paris Agreement’s objective of net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the second half of this century. The world’s remaining carbon budget of 900 gigatonnes (Gt) will…

      29th July 2019
      A Mechanism for CCS in the Post-Paris Era
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      A Mechanism for CCS in the Post-Paris Era

      Wolfgang Heidug, Paul Zakkour

      The Paris Agreement committed ratifying Parties to hold the increase in the global average temperature to much less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. The Agreement also committed Parties to achieving…

      Wolfgang Heidug Heidug, Wolfgang
      Paul Zakkour Zakkour, Paul
      7th April 2019
      Policy Pathways to Meet Saudi Arabia’s Contribution to the Paris Agreement
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Policy Pathways to Meet Saudi Arabia’s Contribution to the Paris Agreement

      David Wogan, Elizabeth Carey, Douglas Cooke

      The 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change fundamentally altered the nature of global climate governance by introducing a new framework based on a bottom-up system of nationally determined contributions (NDCs). As a signatory Party to the Agreement, the Kingdom of…

      David Wogan Wogan, David
      Elizabeth Carey Carey, Elizabeth
      Douglas Cooke Cooke, Douglas
      27th February 2019
      KAPSARC Quarterly Issue 8
      Climate Change Policies and Governance Future of Global Oil Markets Future of Natural Gas Markets Regional Energy Markets

      KAPSARC Quarterly Issue 8

      The research summaries in this issue are grouped into four themes: climate change; oil and gas; electricity; and Asia. Opening with an overview of KAPSARC’s most recent work on climate change, we also highlight our latest research on global oil…

      31st December 2018
      A Comparison of Alternative Programs for Climate Policies
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      A Comparison of Alternative Programs for Climate Policies

      Tarek Atalla, Simona Bigerna, Carlo Andrea Bollino

      This research paper compares the relative welfare impact of different options for allocating the financing burden of climate change mitigation policies. Focusing on efficient ways to finance policies aimed at climate change mitigation, not only at direct carbon reduction, could…

      Tarek Atalla Atalla, Tarek
      Simona Bigerna Bigerna, Simona
      Carlo Andrea Bollino Bollino, Carlo Andrea
      30th December 2018
      India’s Balancing Act to Address Climate Change Under the Paris Agreement
      Climate Change Policies and Governance Models, Data and Tools

      India’s Balancing Act to Address Climate Change Under the Paris Agreement

      Yagyavalk Bhatt, AlJawhara Al Quayid, Nourah Al Hosain, Paul Mollet

      As an emerging economy, a major part of India’s nationally determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris  Agreement is an emissions intensity target. With its current policies, India is on track to achieve its climate targets under the Agreement. However, the…

      Yagyavalk Bhatt Bhatt, Yagyavalk
      AlJawhara Al Quayid Al Quayid, AlJawhara
      Nourah Al Hosain Al Hosain, Nourah
      Paul Mollet Mollet, Paul
      12th December 2018