Integrated oil and gas (O&G) companies operate vertically integrated businesses that span the O&G value chain. In this way, they can leverage expertise across multiple domains rather than just focusing on exploration and production (E&P). Examples of such companies include British Petroleum (BP), Cenovus Energy, Chevron, Eni, Imperial Oil, ExxonMobil, Repsol, Royal Dutch Shell, Suncor Energy and TotalEnergies. Integrated O&G companies played a central role in advancing energy availability and economic growth during the twentieth century. However, these companies now face the challenge of addressing the need for a new energy transition in the twenty-first century. This transition will involve a shift from fossil fuels to alternative fuels, such as renewable wind and solar energy, battery storage and nuclear energy.