After cement production in Saudi Arabia surged in the first half of the 2010s due to the country’s rapid economic development, it has slowed measurably in recent years as economic growth has declined. This is shown in Figure 1, along with the evolution of the Kingdom’s real gross domestic income (RGDI). Still, it ranks among the top 10 countries for existing cement kiln capacity. The Saudi cement industry has relied on Arab Heavy crude oil, heavy fuel oil (HFO), and natural gas to produce clinker, a key cement ingredient.17th January 2023
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