This research paper compares the relative welfare impact of different options for allocating the financing burden of climate change mitigation policies. Focusing on efficient ways to finance policies aimed at climate change mitigation, not only at direct carbon reduction, could delink the issue of carbon taxation from carbon emissions.

A Pigouvian tax is the traditional way of correcting for negative externalities, or the undesirable consequences for society arising from the actions of a company or industry sector, by levying additional taxes on that activity. Pigouvian taxation corrects society’s welfare loss, however, from the viewpoint of the private sector, such taxation imposes a deadweight economic loss with respect to the original private equilibrium.

As an alternative, we evaluate a methodology that could fund investments to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and we show that the policy we consider to be optimal from a tax standpoint – Ramsey pricing can both improve world welfare and be politically more acceptable than other pricing options. Rather than focus directly on emissions reduction by taxing energy, a Ramsey pricing solution can be designed to minimize distortions while raising funds for investment in climate change mitigation.


Tarek Atalla

Tarek Atalla

Former Research Associate

Simona Bigerna

Simona Bigerna

Associate Professor of Economics, University of Perugia

Carlo Andrea Bollino

Visiting Researcher Carlo Andrea is a visiting researcher at KAPSARC, a professor of economics at the University of Perugia, and a professor of energy economics… Carlo Andrea is a visiting researcher at KAPSARC, a professor of economics at the University of Perugia, and a professor of energy economics at the University Luiss, Rome. He has been the president of the Italian Association for Energy Economics since 2014 and was the president of the International Association for Energy Economics in 2008. His other roles have included energy advisor to Italy's minister of industry, president of the Italian Electric Transmission Network, chief economist at Eni, economist at the Bank of Italy, research associate at United Nations' Project LINK, and lecturer and professor of economics at the universities of Pennsylvania (United States), Campobasso, Sassari and Urbino (Italy). Carlo Andrea's research investigates econometric modeling, consumer behavior, energy markets, sustainable and renewable energy, liberalization and regulation policy. He has authored over 200 scientific articles, is the chief editor of the Review of Economics and Institutionsand a member of the editorial board of Energies.


  • Econometric modeling
  • Consumer behavior
  • Energy markets
  • Sustainable and renewable energy
  • Liberalization and regulation policy

Publications See all Carlo Andrea Bollino’s publications


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