• Focus Area Exploring the impact of the evolving trends in energy, environment, policy and technology
  • Type Commentary
  • Date 18 March 2024


Net-zero pathways have become a key climate goal that can help promote a carbon-neutral future by balancing anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with emissions removed from the atmosphere. These pathways provide strategic frameworks and roadmaps for countries to reduce GHG emissions significantly. For instance, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s (KSA) transport sector is responsible for more than one-fifth of KSA GHG emissions. Net-zero pathways are highly relevant for frameworks designed to reduce the sector’s GHG emissions, as they help set long-term climate goals such as emission reduction strategies, technology selection and innovation and inform policies and regulations. However, a holistic approach is needed to design net-zero pathways that are effective in practice. The circular carbon economy (CCE) framework adopted by KSA supports this holistic approach. Nonetheless, implementing the CCE framework in the transport sector requires identifying GHG emission sources and driving systemic changes via a life cycle assessment (LCA). This manuscript introduces the LCA approach and its interplay with the CCE framework. This study provides a background for further research in the KSA transport sector to map out plausible net-zero pathways for sustainable transport systems in Saudi Arabia.


Anvita Arora

Program Director Anvita is an architect and transport planner whose current areas of research at KAPSARC include smart cities, electric vehicles, and… Anvita is an architect and transport planner whose current areas of research at KAPSARC include smart cities, electric vehicles, and freight mobility. Before joining the Center in February 2018, she was the managing director and CEO of Innovative Transport Solutions (iTrans), an incubator company of IIT Delhi, where she led over 40 applied research and planning projects for 10 years for clients ranging from city level and country level authorities to funding agencies including the UNEP, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and DFID. Supporting cities to become sustainable, inclusive and climate resilient was the primary focus of the work. She was also the India Resident Representative for the Bicycle Partnership Program of the Interface for Cycling Expertise (I-CE), the Netherlands, for four years. Anvita has been teaching transport planning in the Urban Design Department of the School of Planning and Architecture in Delhi for the past 12 years and was visiting faculty at the TERI University, Delhi. She was also associated with the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Program (TRIPP) at IIT Delhi, a Volvo Research and Educational Foundations (VREF) Centre of Excellence, for nearly 12 years.


  • Low carbon transport
  • Energy efficient mobility systems
  • Climate resilient urban planning
  • Inclusive and equitable cities

Publications See all Anvita Arora’s publications

Michael Koroma

Michael Koroma

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