In this study, we investigate how total factor productivity (TFP), alongside income, price, and population, shapes energy consumption in the long-run in Saudi Arabia, the world’s number one oil exporter. To do so, we first estimate a production function and construct the associated TFP series, and then assess TFP’s impact on energy consumption. To take into consideration the stochastic properties of the variables, we employ unit root and cointegration methods. We also correct estimations and test results for potential small sample bias. Our main finding is that TFP has a statistically significant impact on energy consumption in the long-run.