• Primary Program Energy and Macroeconomics
  • Research Interests Applied macroeconometrics, energy economics, time series modeling and forecasting
  • Status -

Biography

Fakhri is a research fellow leading the KAPSARC Global Energy Macroeconometric Model (KGEMM) project. Previously, he was an associate professor and director of the Center for Socio-Economic Research at Qafqaz University, Azerbaijan. He has served as a deputy director of the Research Institute at the Ministry of Economic Development, and a senior economist at the Research Department of the Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic. He received a Fulbright Post-Doctoral Scholarship and conducted a research on building and applying a macroeconometric model for policy analysis at the George Washington University. Fakhri is a member of the research program on forecasting at the George Washington University and the editorial board of the Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences. His research interests and experience span econometric modeling and forecasting, building and applying macroeconometric models for policy purposes, energy economics with a particular focus on natural resource-rich countries.

Publications

See all Fakhri’s publications
  • Book/book chapter
  • Discussion papers
  • Instant Insights
  • Commentaries
  • KAPSARC journal articles
  • External journal articles
How Total Factor Productivity Drives Long-Run Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia

How Total Factor Productivity Drives Long-Run Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia

In this study, we investigate how total factor productivity (TFP), alongside income, price, and population, shapes energy consumption in the long-run in Saudi Arabia, the world’s number one oil exporter. To do so, we first estimate a production function and construct the associated TFP series, and then assess TFP’s impact on energy consumption. To take into consideration the stochastic properties of the variables, we employ unit root and cointegration methods. We also correct estimations and test results for potential small sample bias. Our main finding is that TFP has a statistically significant impact on energy consumption in the long-run. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-06001-5_8  

21st May 2019
Fiscal Multipliers for Saudi Arabia Revisited

Fiscal Multipliers for Saudi Arabia Revisited

Fiscal policy lies at the heart of key macroeconomic and budgetary decisions and is central to understanding the dynamics of oil rich economies. Fiscal multipliers, including spending multipliers, indicate how changes to fiscal policy can stimulate economic growth, to what magnitude, and how efficiently, making them valuable tools for macroeconomic planning and analysis.

5th October 2020
Regional Heterogeneous Drivers of Electricity Demand in Saudi Arabia

Regional Heterogeneous Drivers of Electricity Demand in Saudi Arabia

Aggregate residential electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased rapidly over the past several decades, largely due to population increases and fast economic growth (SAMA 2019). The growth in electricity consumption has been driven, among other factors, by government-administered prices fixed in nominal terms for years with minor adjustments.

13th September 2020
The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia

The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia

A clear objective of Saudi Vision 2030, the strategic roadmap for the future of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is to put the non-oil sector at the heart of the country’s economic development. The vision realization programs (VRPs), such as the National Transformation Program and Fiscal Balance Program (FBP), have established initiatives and targets to help develop the non-oil sector. It is important, then, to explore the role fiscal policy can play in developing the country’s non-oil sector.  

19th July 2020
Electricity Demand Modeling in Saudi Arabia: Do Regional Differences Matter

Electricity Demand Modeling in Saudi Arabia: Do Regional Differences Matter

Energy is a pervasive input to all business and recreational activities. As such, total energy demand is an important indicator that helps explain the pattern of economic development within a country. Identifying and understanding the key determinants of electricity demand is therefore important for the economic prosperity of a country, since the availability of reliable electricity directly affects the prospects of economic development. With mega projects already in the works in Saudi Arabia, and Saudi Vision 2030’s National Industrial Development and Logistics Program (NIDLP 2019) being implemented, understanding the Kingdom’s existing and projected patterns of electricity demand is arguably more important now than ever before.  

30th April 2020
Modeling Sectoral Employment in Saudi Arabia

Modeling Sectoral Employment in Saudi Arabia

Achieving the desired level of employment is central to macroeconomic policy. Regulators should have a better understanding of employment dynamics in order to design appropriate policies and test their impact. Healthy employment levels not only benefit household income and the production factor of firms, but also help maintain sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty. Employment is a central element in the concept of inclusive growth (UN 2006; Bhalla 2007). Therefore, the dynamics of employment determinants have been the subject of considerable research to date.

7th April 2020
KGEMM:  A Macroeconometric Model for Saudi Arabia

KGEMM: A Macroeconometric Model for Saudi Arabia

The KAPSARC Global Energy Macroeconometric Model (KGEMM), is a policy analysis tool for examining the impacts of domestic policy measures and global economic and energy shocks on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

13th February 2020
Gasoline Demand in Saudi Arabia: Are the Price and Income Elasticities Constant?

Gasoline Demand in Saudi Arabia: Are the Price and Income Elasticities Constant?

After the drop in international oil prices in 2014, oil-exporting countries started to launch new policies to develop their economies. It is important that policymakers involved in energy and economic development understand how economic agents respond to increased energy prices and how the latter affects the demand for different fuels.

26th December 2019
Estimating Saudi Arabia’s Regional GDP Using Satellite Nighttime Light Images

Estimating Saudi Arabia’s Regional GDP Using Satellite Nighttime Light Images

The increasing availability of data from technologies such as mobile phones, satellites and connected devices means that there are many new possible sources of economic data. This study analyzes the potential use of nighttime light images from satellites to provide a regional distribution of Saudi Arabia’s gross domestic product (GDP).

23rd December 2019
Theoretical Framework for Industrial Electricity Consumption Revisited

Theoretical Framework for Industrial Electricity Consumption Revisited

Policymakers should expect that the energy price reform in Saudi Arabia will reduce industrial electricity consumption. However, this reduction will be slight as the price effect is found to be very small. At the same time, policymakers should be aware that the increasing population aged 15-64, and all those over 15, will lead to an increase in industrial electricity consumption. Lastly, the estimations show that industrial electricity consumption will fully absorb shocks including policy interventions in less than a year.

24th November 2019
Natural Resource Revenue Management Strategies in Developing Countries: A Calibrated Macroeconomic Model for Uganda

Natural Resource Revenue Management Strategies in Developing Countries: A Calibrated Macroeconomic Model for Uganda

Recent natural resource discoveries in Eastern Africa provide an opportunity to boost economic development. However, this opportunity brings with it potential challenges in the form of ‘Dutch disease’ and, potentially, the ‘resource curse’. A companion paper to this report: Managing Macroeconomic Risks Arising from Natural Resource Revenues in Developing Countries: A review of the Challenges for East Africa sets out the current state of thinking on the issues of Dutch disease, resource curse, the applicability of the permanent income hypothesis (PIH) in populous, developing economies and the impact of absorptive capacity constraints.

24th December 2015
Macroeconomic Challenges for Eastern Africa

Macroeconomic Challenges for Eastern Africa

Recent natural resource discoveries in Eastern Africa provide an enormous opportunity to boost economic development. However, success is not inevitable and the causes of failure have been extensively researched during recent years. This paper summarizes the challenges that can beset such opportunities.

6th September 2015
Iran Sanctions: Implications for the Oil Market

Iran Sanctions: Implications for the Oil Market

United States (U.S.) Iran energy sanction waivers expired May 2, 2019. The waivers permitted eight economies (China, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey) to temporarily continue buying oil from Iran. Based on KAPSARC modeling of the political decision-making process, this Instant Insight – the first such KAPSARC publication – finds that the international community, and indeed some of the waiver economies, will at best partially comply with reinstated sanctions. China, India and Turkey are particularly unlikely to comply with U.S. sanctions and will maintain much of their current oil trade with Iran, the modeling shows. The paper also simulates the likely impact on the global oil price of ending the waivers in four scenarios which show: i) no oil price rise if the sanctions don’t work at all, ii) an oil price rise of up to 12% by Q2 2020 if Iranian oil exports drop by an average 42%, iii) a 30%-plus price increase if the sanctions are 100% effective, and iv) no significant price change if Saudi Arabia offsets reduced Iranian crude oil exports by increasing its output and exports. The analysis in the paper is based on two in-house models: the KAPSARC Toolkit for Behavioral Analysis (KTAB) and the KAPSARC Global Energy Macroeconometric Model (KGEMM).

9th May 2019
The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia

The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Non-Oil GDP in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Vision 2030 (SV2030), the strategic roadmap for the future of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, aims to decouple the country’s economy from its reliance on oil revenues through implementing several economic and social initiatives. The key economic goals of SV2030 announced in 2016 include increasing the private sector’s contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) from 40% to 65%, raising the share of non-oil exports in non-oil GDP from 16% to 50%, and reducing the unemployment rate from 11.6% to 7% by 2030. It also aims to maximize local content by localizing more than US$70 billion of content, make economic agents more efficient and increase government revenues by removing domestic energy subsidies and introducing other non-oil revenue items, enabling further government investment. Developing the Kingdom’s non-oil sector would help it to meet these targets. Fiscal policy could also play a major role, given that Saudi monetary policy originated from the fixed exchange rate regime (pegging the Saudi riyal [SAR] to the US$). 

16th January 2020
The Changing Impact of Income and Price on Gasoline Demand in Saudi Arabia

The Changing Impact of Income and Price on Gasoline Demand in Saudi Arabia

The growth path of gasoline demand, a key strategic fuel, has important implications for oil security, oil-related carbon emissions, and refinery investment (Dahl 2012). As such, understanding how fluctuations in income and gasoline prices could affect the demand for oil in Saudi Arabia allows policymakers to assess what drives gasoline demand over time and the likely future development of oil demand.

11th December 2019
The Role of Oil Price in Exchange Rate Movements: the CIS Oil-Exporters

The Role of Oil Price in Exchange Rate Movements: the CIS Oil-Exporters

Economies

2017
Residential Electricity Use Effects of Population in Russia

Residential Electricity Use Effects of Population in Russia

Journal of Qafqaz University – Economics and Administration

2015
Sustainable Development and the STIRPAT Framework

Sustainable Development and the STIRPAT Framework

Journal of Qafqaz University – Economics and Administration

2014
The impact of the real exchange rate on non-oil exports. Is there an asymmetric adjustment towards the equilibrium?

The impact of the real exchange rate on non-oil exports. Is there an asymmetric adjustment towards the equilibrium?

Actual Problems of Economics

2013
Dutch Disease and the Azerbaijan economy

Dutch Disease and the Azerbaijan economy

Journal of Communist and Post-Communist Studies

2013
Bank Credits and Non-Oil Economic Growth: Evidence from Azerbaijan

Bank Credits and Non-Oil Economic Growth: Evidence from Azerbaijan

International Review of Economics and Finance

2013
Relationship between inflation and economic growth in Azerbaijani economy: Is there any threshold effect?

Relationship between inflation and economic growth in Azerbaijani economy: Is there any threshold effect?

Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences

2012
Why had the Money Market Approach been irrelevant in explaining inflation in Azerbaijan during the rapid economic growth period?

Why had the Money Market Approach been irrelevant in explaining inflation in Azerbaijan during the rapid economic growth period?

Journal of Middle Eastern Finance and Economics

2011

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