Muhammad is a senior research associate in Energy and Macroeconomics, currently working on the KAPSARC Global Energy Macroeconometric Model (KGEMM) project. Before joining KAPSARC, Muhammad worked as a senior research economist at the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) in Islamabad. During his 18 years in research, Muhammad has worked extensively in the areas of energy, environment, trade and macroeconomics. He also has experience working for various research, academic and governmental organizations such as King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the Benazir Income Support Program, Pakistan. Muhammad has published several peer-reviewed articles on electricity demand, energy, inflation, and environmental issues. He received Pakistan’s Higher Education Commission’s Outstanding Research Award 2015/2016 for his research paper titled “Environmental Kuznets curve and financial development in Pakistan,” published in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
International labor migration has played a key role in the development of both advanced and developing countries. Many developing countries in Asia have relied on labor migration, mainly to the oil-rich Gulf region, to reduce both unemployment and poverty (Naseem 2007). Mansoor and Quillin (2006) explain that poverty, unemployment and low wages in developing countries are the main drivers of migration from these countries. Higher wages and the potential for improved standards of living and professional development in resource-rich countries are pull factors for migration.22nd May 2022