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      Closing the Investment Gap to Achieve Paris Agreement Goals
      Regional Energy Markets

      Closing the Investment Gap to Achieve Paris Agreement Goals

      Fatih Yılmaz, Fahad A. Alswaina, Fateh Belaïd, Mohamad Hejazi, Mari Luomi, Salaheddine Soummane

      This study aims to assess the alignment of global sustainable financial flows with transition investment priorities. First, we identify investment gaps based on the difference between the required annual investment to meet global net-zero emissions (NZE) targets and current investment…

      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Fahad A. Alswaina Fahad A. Alswaina
      Fateh Belaïd Belaïd, Fateh
      Mohamad Hejazi Hejazi, Mohamad
      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Salaheddine Soummane Soummane, Salaheddine
      09 October 2023
      Lessons from Gulf Cooperation Council Countries’ Participation in the Clean Development Mechanism
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      Lessons from Gulf Cooperation Council Countries’ Participation in the Clean Development Mechanism

      Mari Luomi, Thomas Bosse, Zlata Sergeeva

      Carrbon markets have rapidly risen on government and corporate agendas in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries as the region gears up to implement the Paris Agreement and pursue ambitious net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets. Governments have expressed interest…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Thomas Bosse Thomas Bosse
      Zlata Sergeeva Sergeeva, Zlata
      06 June 2023
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2022 – Results
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2022 – Results

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Al Shehri

      The circular carbon economy (CCE) concept provides a holistic, flexible and pragmatic framework for countries to plan their energy and economic transitions to lower carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emission levels and, ultimately, net-zero emissions. The CCE Index measures countries’…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      5 March 2023
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2022 – Results
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2022 – Results

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Al Shehri

      The circular carbon economy (CCE) concept provides a holistic, flexible and pragmatic framework for countries to plan their energy and economic transitions to lower carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emission levels and, ultimately, net-zero emissions. The CCE Index measures countries’…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      10 November 2022
      The Gulf Cooperation Council and the Circular Carbon Economy: Progress and Potential
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Gulf Cooperation Council and the Circular Carbon Economy: Progress and Potential

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Al Shehri

      Over the past year, all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have updated their medium-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets by submitting revised nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      14 June 2022
      Balancing China’s Energy Security and Its Transition to Carbon Neutrality
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Balancing China’s Energy Security and Its Transition to Carbon Neutrality

      Dongmei Chen, Mari Luomi

      At the United Nations (UN) General Assembly’s seventy-fifth session held on September 20, 2020, Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged that China would reach peak carbon emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. This is seen as a significant…

      Dongmei Chen Chen, Dongmei
      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      10 April 2022
      COP 26 Outcomes and Opportunities for Saudi Arabia and Other Arab Countries
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      COP 26 Outcomes and Opportunities for Saudi Arabia and Other Arab Countries

      Mari Luomi

      The 2021 Glasgow Climate Change Conference, also known as COP 26, took place at a difficult juncture. Countries are still struggling with the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences. The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere continue to…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      13 February 2022
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Results
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Results

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Al Shehri

      There is an urgent need to align global carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions with climate-safe trajectories. A broad range of technologies and approaches are needed to achieve this cost-effectively and equitably. The circular carbon economy (CCE) concept provides…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      29 December 2021
      What Drove Saudi Arabia’s 2020 Fall in CO2 Emissions?
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      What Drove Saudi Arabia’s 2020 Fall in CO2 Emissions?

      Thamir Al Shehri, Jan Frederik Braun, Anwar Gasim, Mari Luomi

      In June 2021, the energy data provider Enerdata released its initial estimates for Saudi Arabia’s 2020 carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The data indicate that the Kingdom’s CO2 emissions from fuel combustion decreased by 3.3%, from 508.3 million tonnes of CO2…

      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      Jan Frederik Braun Braun, Jan Frederik
      Anwar Gasim Gasim, Anwar
      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      29 December 2021
      Oman’s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)

      Oman’s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)

      Mari Luomi, Aisha Al-Sarihi

      In July 2021, Oman submitted its second nationally determined contribution to the Paris Agreement on climate change (NDC). In the NDC, Oman pledges to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% relative to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario by 2030.…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Aisha Al-Sarihi Al-Sarihi, Aisha
      23 November 2021
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Methodology
      Climate Change Policies and Governance

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index 2021 – Methodology

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Al Shehri

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index (CCE Index) aims to measure countries’ progress in and potential for achieving circular carbon economies (CCEs). The CCE Index is based on two sub-indices: one for measuring countries’ current performance in the various dimensions of…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      2 November 2021
      Measuring to Manage: The Case for Improving CO2 Monitoring and Reporting in Saudi Arabia
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      Measuring to Manage: The Case for Improving CO2 Monitoring and Reporting in Saudi Arabia

      Mari Luomi, Thamir Al Shehri, Nicholas Howarth

      To support the transition to a circular carbon economy, there is an urgent need to develop robust domestic systems of carbon dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) monitoring and reporting in the Kingdom. Such systems provide the essential evidence…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      Nicholas Howarth Howarth, Nicholas
      13 July 2021
      The Circular Carbon Economy Index – Methodological Approach and Conceptual Framework
      Productivity and Economic Diversification

      The Circular Carbon Economy Index – Methodological Approach and Conceptual Framework

      Mari Luomi, Fatih Yılmaz, Thamir Al Shehri, Nicholas Howarth

      The circular carbon economy (CCE) approach, developed during Saudi Arabia’s G20 Presidency and endorsed by G20 leaders and energy ministers, can be used as a framework for holistic assessments of all available energy and emission management technologies within the confines…

      Mari Luomi Luomi, Mari
      Fatih Yılmaz Yılmaz, Fatih
      Thamir Al Shehri Al Shehri, Thamir
      Nicholas Howarth Howarth, Nicholas
      28 June 2021
      Reinforcing Global Climate Governance to Deliver Higher Ambition

      Reinforcing Global Climate Governance to Deliver Higher Ambition

      T20

      This policy brief outlines how the unique characteristics of the Group of 20 (G20), namely its limited membership, informality, and economic orientation, can be leveraged to promote climate action. We identify four ways in which the G20 can support multilateral…

      Mari Luomi, Rishikesh Ram, Jennifer Allan

      2020
      Covid-19 Recovery: How the G20 can Accelerate Sustainable Energy Transitions in the Power Sector by Supporting the Private Sector?

      Covid-19 Recovery: How the G20 can Accelerate Sustainable Energy Transitions in the Power Sector by Supporting the Private Sector?

      T20

      COVID-19 has dramatically changed the socioeconomic context for clean energy transitions worldwide. Fiscal rescue and recovery measures that unaligned with a green, resilient, and just recovery will miss the historic opportunity to realign global economic and energy trajectories with the…

      Yong Jun Baek, Mari Luomi, Tanzeed Alam, Chul Ju Kim, Jeffrey Logan, William Toor, Robert T. McGrath, Charles F. Kutscher, Nella Sri Hendriyetty, Timothy C. Coburn